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Using the diagram below select the right answer that describes the three pillars of sustainability.


Instruction: Provide/Circle the right answer for each question                

Glimpse of the Environment

  1. Define the following terms with examples: (Avoid plagiarism, define in your own words the right definitions)
S/N Terms Definition with examples
1. Environmental Science  
2. Built environment  
3. Abiotic Components  
4. Biotic Components  


  1. A natural functional ecological unit comprising living organisms and their non-living organisms which interact to form a supporting system is …………………
  2. Ecology
  3. Natural Habitat
  4. Ecosystem
  5. Watershed


  1. Order the following steps of the Scientific Method in Fig 1.

____ Research on previous work/preliminary studies

_____   Results interpretation

_____   Create Testable Hypothesis

_____   Refine and revise original hypothesis

_____   Develop a test of the hypothesis

_____   Communicate the result

_____   Data gathering

_____   Question Identification

  1. Occam’s theory suggests that when faced with equally good hypothesis, always choose the complex one.
    1. True
    2. False


  1. ………………………………. extends from the lowest sea bed level to about 24 km of the atmosphere and the houses the life supporting resources
    1. Lithosphere
    2. Exosphere
    3. Biosphere
    4. Troposphere

Understanding the Physical and Human Environment

  1. ………………………………….. means Northern hemisphere winds blow clockwise, Southern Hemisphere blow counterclockwise
    1. Coriolis effect.
    2. Polar effect
    3. Conair effect
    4. Divergent effect
  2. Using the diagram in figure 3. Provide the climate information for the circled regions. Hint: you can visit the link here to view the whole map adequately http://hanschen.org/koppen










Figure 3: World Map of Koppen climate classification


Chapter 1 : Population and Scarcity

  1. Carrying capacity and …………………………………analysis can be used as indices to think about impacts of human individuals and populations.
  2. Ecological footprint
  3. Carbon footprint
  4. Overpopulation
  5. Intensification


  1. As developments initially occurs, environmental impact increases, with per capita use of resources rising, pollution increasing, and damage to ecosystems like forests rising, and doing so at a rising rate describes the ……………………………………
    1. Neo-Malthusians theory
    2. Environmental Kuznets Curve
    3. Paul Ehrlich analysis
    4. Barry Commoner theory


  1. What factors led to the decrease in population growth rates in Kerala, India
    1. Economic increase and birth policy
    2. Birth policy and fertility behavior
    3. Women’s education and fertility behavior
    4. Human pressure and Economic demand


  1. ……………………………. in recent centuries have clearly been linked to significant overall decline in forest cover
  2. Carbon sink
  3. Human activities
  4. Disturbances
  5. Overgrazing


  1. The arrival of the Spanish in South American acquired not only silver, gold, but other foodstuffs which were then introduced to Europe as part of what is called …………………………………….
  2. Merchandise
  3. Monoculture
  4. Columbia Exchange
  5. Industrial economy


  1. The concept of vegetation climax suggests broad………………………………… which accounts for a normal or average vegetation type best suited to a local condition if things are left to themselves.
  2. Physiographic and climatological conditions
  3. Climatic and weather condition
  4. Atmospheric and Physiographic conditions
  5. Induced climatic and environmental conditions.
  6. Which of the following is NOT true about demographic transition?
    1. It shows a connection between population growth and economic development.
    2. It explains the stages a country goes through when transitioning from non-industrial to industrial.
    3. It is based on observation of Western countries.
    4. It is an exact science and always yields true predictions.

Using the formula provided below as provided in class to solve questions 18-22

Jasvane is a temperate region which covers 21000 km. It has a population of 750,000 inhabitants of the island. Recent report shows there are 23,250 new births and 7,220 death cases recorded. (Show your calculations in the workbook)

  1. What is the current population density?


  1. What are the birth and death rate?


  1. What is the population growth rate (r)


  1. In how many years will the population of Jasvane double


Chapter 10 and 14 ————-Biodiversity

  1. A biotic component in an ecosystem that may be composed of few species only or many species of plant, animals, and microbes, that react and interact with each other and with abiotic factor of the environment is described as
    1. Biodiversity level
    2. Ecosystem diversity
    3. Genetic diversity
    4. Species diversity


  1. Plants, animals, pathogens, and other organisms that is found in an ecosystem, and which may cause economic or environmental harm or adversely affect human health.
  2. Native species
  3. Localized Species
  4. Invasive Alien Species
  5. Riparian Species
  6. Vegetation in urban areas reduces this effect of ……………………………………in an urban area/cities
  7. Acid rain
  8. Urban population
  9. Urban heat island
  10. Forest loss
  11. Identify two invasive plant and animal species each in dominant in Florida. Fill this in the table below and provide further information on them as requested in the table (4 Points)


Invasive Species Origin Mode of Transportation to the USA Brief Life History Ways by which the specie spread Eradication/Control suggestions

Soil and Water Resources

  1. ………………is a driver and consequence to soil degradation
    1. Climate change
    2. Induced intensification
    3. Chemical application
    4. Ploughing


  1. The following are examples of water pollutant
    1. Pathogens
    2. Organic matters
    3. Radioactive Waste
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above


  1. Point Source and Point Source
  2. Non -Point Source and Non-Point Source


  1. There are twelve types of soil as discussed in class. The twelve types of soil can be classified according to their composition. The soil texture triangle can be used to illustrate the composition of the soil types. Using the picture of the soil texture triangle in the assigned slide used for the class today. Describe how this useful tool can explain the differences and similarities between the different types of soil.
  2. Some soils are better suited to growing crops than other soils. Choose five crops and research the ideal soil for growing each crop. Explain why those soils are the best growing environment for the crops that you chose.

Chapter 3 ——— Markets and Commodities

  1. ……………….. is a state of disequilibrium in the market due to market distortion and ……………. is spillover of a cost or benefits as where industrial activities at a plant leads to pollution off-site that must be paid for by someone else
    1. Market Failure and Monopoly
    2. Monopoly and Monopsony
    3. Market failures and Externalities
    4. Market failures and Monopsony


  1. ……………………is a raw material used to manufacture finished goods and …………………………….. is a finished good made available to consumers.
    1. Product and Markets goods
    2. Products and services
    3. Commodities and Services
    4. Commodities and Product
  2. ………………………. alleviates scarcity by creating incentives that either increase the supply of environmental goods and services or reduce demand for them.
  3. Green Technology
  4. Market response model
  5. Cap and trade
  6. Externalities


Chapter 13 – Tuna

  1. Pick the true statement:
    1. Water covers ~71% of the Earth’s Surface.
    2. ~2.53% of all of earth’s water is freshwater.
    3. For as little as we know about the oceans, as over 80% of them are unexplored, we do know for certain is that overfishing is a major problem, especially for prized fish such as tuna.
    4. All above statements are true.

Chapter 4 – Institutions and the Commons:

  1. To figure out who would pay the price to repair the land in the example of trying to fix our Tragedy of the Commons example with the commonly held sheep grazing land, we modeled our options using the structure from the ____________ example problem, which is a model from the branch of mathematics which models decisions using “rational decision-makers” called _____________.
    1. Prisoner’s Dilemma; Cultural Theory
    2. Prisoner’s Dilemma; Game Theory
    3. Institutions; Cultural Theory
    4. Institutions; Game Theory


Chapter 5 – Environmental Ethics

  1. Choose the correct pairing of terms with their definitions. In our study of ethics, we focused on what is valued or prioritized in human-environment interactions and discovered lots of opposites and spectrums.
    1. Anthropocentrism vs. Ecocentrism – differing placements of value of either humans first or environment first.
    2. Dominion thesis vs. Stewardship – differing interpretations from the book of Genesis (first book of the Torah and the Bible) as human’s role of ruling over versus taking care of nature.
    3. Anthropocentrism vs. Ecocentrism – differing interpretations from the book of Genesis (first book of the Torah and the Bible) as human’s role of ruling over versus taking care of nature.
    4. A & B are both correct pairs
  2. Pick the correct term. This movement was founded by Murry Bookchin, who had “a vision of human evolution that combines the nature of biology and society into a third ‘thinking nature.’” Furthermore, he postulated that “human domination and destruction of nature follows from social domination between humans.” This movement is also associated with green anarchism and libertarian socialism.
  3. Deep Ecology
  4. Social Ecology
  5. Reconciliation Ecology
  6. Political Ecology


  1. Pick the matching book title. In response to the “animal husbandry” of factory farm agricultural systems that prioritized profit over animal welfare, Peter Singer brought forth a movement of the same name to help the animals with this book. The book’s argument was to expand the utilitarian idea of the greatest good for the greatest number to also include animals.
  2. Silent Spring (1962)
  3. Animal Liberation (1975)
  4. Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered (1985)
  5. Win-Win Ecology (2003)


  1. Where do you stand in the Conservation versus Preservation debate? First, describe/define both terms. Second, list pros and cons for each term (this can be in bulleted format). Third, pick your preference of one, the other, both, neither, or something else. Finally, tell me why you picked your preference.


  1. Illustrate and describe the 3 C’s of Rewilding.

Chapter 9 – Carbon Dioxide

  1. Carbon Cycle

Photosynthesis                    Oil              Sugar          Volcanoes  Ocean


Microbes                   Decayed     Natural Gas           Fossil fuel burning


Respiration              Coal            Ozone Depletion  Green House


Chlorophyl               Human waste       Precipitation


  1. Animals use oxygen in the process of ——————– and make more CO2.
  2. Plants use CO2 in the process of ——————– to make ——————– and


  1. The ——————– is the main regulator of CO2 in the atmosphere because CO2 dissolves conveniently in it.
  2. In the past, huge deposits of carbon were stored as dead plants and animals ——————–.


  1. Today these deposits are burned as fossil fuels, which include ——————–, ——————–, and Oil.
  2. More CO2 is released in the atmosphere today than in the past because of ——————–
  3. Another natural source for CO2 is ——————–.
  4. Too much CO2 in the atmosphere may be cause for the ——————–
  5. Draw a simple and clear diagram of the Carbon Cycle using only the relevant words provided in the list above.
  6. Label the image in figure 4 with the appropriate key terms as provided from the corresponding key term box.

Chapter 6 – Risks and Hazards

  1. Scientists can often calculate the chance of a hazard occurrence objectively and present it as 20% ±5%. In this case the 20% is the ____________, the ±5% is the _______________.
    1. Probability; Risk
    2. Window of Uncertainty; Probability
    3. Probability; Window of Uncertainty
    4. None of the above
  2. Humans are not rational decision makers, meaning that they use their subjective judgment when it comes to their mental calculation about the characteristics and severity of a risk. This is known as ____________. To account for this, Mary Douglas came up with __________ to seek to explain society conflict over risk.
    1. Risk Perception; Game Theory
    2. Affect; Cultural Theory
    3. Risk Perception; Cultural Theory
    4. Affect; Game Theory


Coastal Studies/Climate Change

  1. …………………… and ……………………… generates CH4 (Methane) while …………………. and fossil fuel combustion generates ……………
    1. Landfills; grazing;   Deforestation; CO2 (Carbondioxide)
    2. Incinerators; Cattle;   Deforestation; CO  (Carbon monoxide)
    3. Landfills; Cattle;   Deforestation; CO2 (Carbondioxide)
    4. Sandfills; Cattle;   Degradation; CO3  (Carbon trioxide)


  1. ……………………… has the highest percentage of greenhouse gases and it is generated more from ………………… sector
    1. CO2; Agriculture
    2. CO2; Energy
    3. CH4; Energy
    4. CH4 Waste
  2. Examples of natural causes of climate change are…………, ……………….., ……………., while examples of artificial causes of climate change are ………………, …………………, …………………….
    1. Volcanic activity, Continental Drift, Solar radiation;
    2. Deforestation, Photosynthesis, Transportation
    3. Volcanic activity, Orbital variations, Solar radiation; Decomposition, Photosynthesis, Transpiration
    4. Topography, Elevation, Solar Movement; Decomposition, Photosynthesis,  Digestion
    5. Tilting, Orbital directions, Solar radiation; Deforestation, Phytoplankton, Transpiration
  3. Which of the following is FALSE about nonrenewable natural resources?
  4. They can last forever if properly managed.
  5. They include metals.
  6. They include crude oils.
  7. They’re in limited supply.

Chapter 7 – Political Economy

  1. Choose the FALSE statement about the Political Economy.
  2. Though Karl Marx presented the relations of production for capitalism with the bourgeoisie (ruling class) versus the proletariat (working class), the principle of studying the relations of production can be defined for any other economic structure (ex: feudalism with serfs/knights).
  3. While both the first and second contradictions of capitalism (per the book) define capitalism’s hypothesized point of failure, the first contradiction is environmentally focused (working and natural) while the second contradiction is economically focused (laborers and commodities).
  4. Seeking new markets and new resources through spatially fixing the economy with the addition of technological advances, as introduced globalization at an unprecedented scale.
  5. All the above statements are true.


  1. For the “sustainable business model” of capitalism, which of the following items are controlled by the Employers/Business Owners/Investors?
  2. Conditions of production – materials (including commodities), etc.
  3. Means of production – equipment, facilities, etc.
  4. Surplus value – Profit generated by completed the sale of the product
  5. All of the Above


  1. The Three World Model divides the world into three regions: 1st World, 2nd World, and 3rd This is often used colloquially to divide the world into socioeconomic developed (1st), developing (2nd), and undeveloped (3rd) regions, however the Three World Model actually describes the Cold War divisions of the Western Bloc (1st), Eastern Bloc (2nd), and Nonaligned (3rd) regions.
    1. True
    2. False
  2. Eco-feminism is “any number of theories critical of the role of _____________ society for degrading both the natural environment and the social condition of women.” This corresponds with the _________________ movements which according to the EPA seek rectification for people regardless of “race, color, national origin, or income”.
  3. patriarchal (male-led); environmental justice
  4. patriarchal (male-led); anarchist
  5. matriarchal (female-led); environmental justice
  6. matriarchal (female-led); anarchist
  7. Finish the following sentence correctly: The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980) …
  8. … is colloquially called Superfund.
  9. … “allows EPA to clean up contaminated sites.”
  10. … gives the EPA goal to “Protect human health and the environment by cleaning up contaminated sites; make responsible parties pay for cleanup work; involve communities in the Superfund process; and return Superfund sites to productive use.”
  11. All of the above


  1. Order the following on political Ecology’s Fundamental Assumptions


_____ Any change in environmental conditions must affect the political and economic status quo.


_____ Changes in the environment do not affect society in a homogenous way: political, social, and economic differences account for uneven distribution of costs and benefits.


_____ The unequal distribution of costs and benefits and the reinforcing or reducing of pre-existing inequalities has political implications in terms of the altered power relationships that then result.


  1. Order the following on Rostow’s Stages of Growth


_____ Age of high mass consumption

_____ Drive to maturity

_____ Preconditions for take-off

_____ Take-off

_____ Traditional society

  1. Use the information on the next page to explore the economic structures for communism, socialism, capitalism, fascism, and feudalism. Answer the following questions working from political ecology framework that politics, the economy, and the environment are interconnected.


Question Communism Socialism Capitalism Fascism Feudalism
Who gets impacted the most by environmental problems?          
Who has the power to take care of the environmental problems?          
Who pays for environmental clean-up/maintenance?          
Rank the economic systems in order of environmental health from best to worst when operating.
(You can have two separate ranking orders if you need to differentiate between idealized and realized).

Defend your ranking prioritization:

Figure source: https://slidetodoc.com/capitalism-communism-socialism-what-do-you-think-of/

More in depth definition of each of the above systems: https://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/engl_258/lecture%20notes/capitalism%20etc%20defined.htm

Figure Source: https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A8b0494fbf6f7b7954cdd4196dc0611f72204a095279a2780b68d2515%2BIMAGE_TINY%2BIMAGE_TINY.1

Chapter 12, 15, 17 – Waste: Uranium, Bottled Water, E-Waste

  1. Pick the true statement about waste.
  2. Though nuclear power is disliked because of radioactive waste management, nuclear power reduces the loss of life as it is one of the safest (fewer number of deaths/watt-hour) and greenest (least amount of CO2 emissions) options for power generation.
  3. Energy production is intentionally limited as power is produced to equal demand. For instances of excess supply, excess energy is wasted due to a lack of storage technologies.
  4. The Congo rainforest’s deforestation and humanitarian crisis associated with unregulated labor for both rare mineral mining and e-waste processing leads to an unnecessary loss of life.
  5. All above are true statements.


  1. Pick the true statement about waste.
  2. The best way to reduce the need for waste management is to culturally remove the “need” for the item in the first place (ex: bottles of ordinary tap water).
  3. After use, most plastic goes straight to the landfill instead of being recycled.
  4. In the United States, though the total amount of trash volume has increased, proportionately less of it is ending up in the landfill and is instead directed to other streams of management (recycling, composting, combustion with energy recovery, etc.).
  5. All above are true statements.

Sustainable Practices and sustainable food systems

  1. Using the diagram below select the right answer that describes the three pillars of sustainability.
  2. – Environmental Responsibility B – Social Equity    C – Political Stability
  3. A – Social Equity B – Economic Efficiency C – Environmental Responsibility
  4. A – Economic Increase B – Environmental Stability C – Political Stability
  5. A – Human Rights B – Social Equity  C – Environmental Efficiency


  1. ………………………………………………… included a working group and came into existence in ………………… while ……………………………… had ………………… member countries and came into existence in………………………
    1. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG); 2016;      Millenium Development Goal (MDG);        192;        2000
    2. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG);  2015;      Millenium Development Goal (MDG);         190;  2001
    3. Millenium Development Goal (MDG); 2015;          Sustainable Development Goal (SGD);        192;        2000
    4. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG); 2015;          Millenium Development Goal (MDG);   192;      2000
  2. Select the right answer from the option below on best sustainable practices.
    1. Establish an energy efficiency and conservation policy that provides employees with behavioral guidelines for energy efficient use of the facility such as turning lights, copiers and computers off, appropriate thermostat use, etc.
    2. Develop and implement sustainable landscaping standards for public agency facilities to reduce water consumption
    3. Install bicycle racks, showers, and other amenities at agency facilities to promote bicycle use by agency employees and visitors.
    4. Use non-toxic fertilizers in agency parks and landscaped areas to reduce contaminants in run-off.
    5. All of the Above

Chapters 8 & 11 – The Social Construction of Nature & Wolves

  1. Money, race, and wilderness are all examples of this term which means, “Any category, condition, or thing that exists or is understood to have certain characteristics because people socially agree that it does.”
  2. Social construction
  3. Signifying practices
  4. Discourse
  5. Relativism


Whole Book Review and addition Lecture Slides provided.

  1. Short Answer (0.5 points each – 10 points total). For each of the paired terms, connect the three terms together with a short statement. This statement should convey the meaning of the terms and how the terms work together per the context of this class.


  1. Population; Wolves; Innovation
  2. Rewilding; Trees; Soil and Water resources
  3. Cap trade; Carbon dioxide; Green certification
  4. Tragedy of the Commons; Fishing/Tuna; Sustainable Food Systems
  5. Societal values; Bottled water; Coastal studies and Climate change
  6. Environmental Justice; E-waste; Hazard and Risk
  7. Risk perception; Nuclear Energy/Uranium; Energy Production


General review of scholars and authors in the book.

  1. Match each person’s name with their brief synopsis by writing the letter corresponding to each synopsis in the blank by their name. There are 26 names here and 24 synopses, meaning you will use every single letter at least once, except for two letters where you will use that same letter for two different people.


_____ Aldo Leopold

_____ Arne Næss

_____ Bill Deval

_____ Blaise Pascal

_____ Eric Wolf

_____ Farley Mowat

_____ Fibonacci

_____ Frank Throne

_____ George Sessions





_____ Gifford Pinchot

_____ John Muir

_____ Julian Simon

_____ Karl Marx

_____ Martin Luther

_____ Mary Douglas

____ Michael Rosenzweig

_____ Murray Bookchin

_____ Norman Borlaug





_____ Paul Ehrlich

_____ Peter Singer

_____ Rachel Carson

_____ Raymond Bryant

_____ Ronald H. Coase

_____ Simon Kuznets

_____ Sinéad Bailey

_____ Thomas Malthu




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